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Disaster Risk Management Programme
(A sub-component of DRMP)
Ministry of Home Affairs
Government of India
United Nations Development Programme, India 2002-2008
Sustainable disaster risk reduction in some of the most multi-hazard prone districts in selected states
Multi Hazard Prone District Areas
Multi Hazard Prone District1 figure

Implementation of the DRM Programme

Phase I:2002-2004 [28]   Implementation of the DRM Programme figure1
– Orissa[12]
– Gujarat[11]
– Bihar[5]
Phase II: 2003-2007 [97]
– Uttaranchal[8]
– Bihar[9]
– West Bengal[10]
– Assam[12]
– Meghalaya[7]
– Sikkim[4]
– Uttar Pradesh[13]
– New Delhi[9]
– Maharashtra[14]
– Tamilnadu[6]
– Orissa[2]
– Gujarat[3]
Urban Earthquake Vulnerability reduction..
Urban Earthquake Vulnerability figure1
Sub-Programme- Disaster Risk Management Programme
The Great Indian Earthquake   Recent Earthquakes
•1897 Assam Earthquake: M8.7   •Koyna             (1967):      M6.5
•1905 Kangra Earthquake: M8.6   •Bihar-Nepal  (1988):      M6.6
•1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake: M8.4   •Imphal            (1988):    M7.2
•1950 Assam Earthquake: M8.7   •Uttarkashi      (1991):     M6.6
    •Killari, Latur   (1993):     M6.4
    •Jabalpur         (1997):     M6.0
    •Chamoli         (1999):     M6.5
    •Bhuj                (2001):    M 6.9
Seismic Zone Map
Four zones in India: II to V
 – V is most severe with probability of intensity    more than XI
 – Total No. of Zones reduced from five (I to V) to four II to V) neglecting effects of very low risk of Zone-I

• Based on best available information at   the time

• Revised from time to time especially  after earthquakes in zones considered  aseismic. (Lattur, Jabalpur)
Seismic Zone Map figure1
Strategies for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction
1. Awareness generation
   • Communicating the risks/codal provisions/technologies among various stakeholders
2. Development of Earthquake preparedness plans
3. Development of a techno-legal framework

    In new constructions-stop increasing the risk
  • Review and amendment of codes , bye-laws
  • Review of enforcement mechanisms.
  In existing constructions-decrease unacceptable risk Mandatory retrofitting

4. Training and Capacity building
5. Networking knowledge of best practices
Awareness Generation
• Development of city-specific Awareness generation plans
• Identifying resource institutions
• Developing Information Education Communication (IEC) materials including manuals, guidelines for   safe housing options in the local language.
• Sensitization of ULBs, NGOs, Resident welfare associations, Students etc.
• Among practicing* Architects, Builders, Contractors, Designers, Engineers etc.
• Use of mass media
• Awareness required for the community at large on

  – Seismic hazard in their region
  – The codal provisions-in simplified vernacular language
  – Cost effective disaster resistant technologies
  – Earthquake resistant features
  – Simple retrofitting measures
  – Costs and benefits of seismic strengthening
  – Possible damage scenario in their environment.
Awareness generation …for policy makers
• Capacity building of local authorities to acquire knowledge and resources
• Decentralizing authority for disaster preparedness and management
• Shifting focus from Response to Pro-active mitigation.
Awareness generation figure1
Development of Earthquake preparedness plans
• Identification of nodal agencies
• Sensitisation of Nagarik Samitis/ RW associations
• Meeting with line departments
• Nagarik Committee Meeting
• General Meeting with public of each ward/Mohalla
• Selection of two volunteers from the ward
• Orientation and training of volunteers
• Mapping by community with assistance of volunteers
  – Social Mapping,Resource Mapping,Hazard Mapping,Need Assessment
• Development of preparedness plan –ward, city level
Formation of Task forces
Development of an Incident Command System
Techno-legal regime - For new constructions
• Review of building byelaws, zonal codal provisions by empowered committees at the national and state   level.
• Certification course for Architects, Engineers.
• Capacity building of regulatory authorities and staff.
• Institutional framework for a National/State ombudsman for overview of regulatory authorities.
• Orientation to policy makers for registration and regulation of builders, promoters and real estate   developers.
Techno-legal regime- For existing constructions
• Retrofit to decrease unacceptable risk
• Millions of unsafe buildings in high risk zones
• Many collapse in monsoons.
• Retrofitting for individual houses-

   – By creating awareness among community
   – Demonstrating retrofitting in various construction systems
   – Creating capacities

• Financial institutions to fund retrofitting
• Legislation for mandatory retrofitting
Capacity Building
• Of Government engineers,practicing Architects,engineers,resource institutions
    •  On codal provisions,safe construction practices, retrofitting measures etc.
• Of Development authorities, ULBs, Resource institutions, Resident’s associations
    •  On awareness generation techniques,development of Earthquake Preparedness and response plans
• Of policy makers –on regional vulnerability, development of the techno-legal regime etc .
•Developing a web-based portal for knowledge-sharing, inter-city cooperation on risk reduction measures
•Forum for city representatives,national experts/advisors to share experiences and learning
•Development of cities disaster resources database- and linkages to the IDRN
•Documentation and dissemination of best practices for wider circulation
•Learning from other’s experiences..
The learning from past experiences….what we do
Normal Long Term Human Response to Earthquakes (Key, 1988)
Stage Time Event Reaction
    Positive Negative
1 0-1min Major EQ   Panic
2 1min to 1week Aftershocks Rescue and Survival Fear
3 1week to 1month Diminishing Aftershocks Short Term repairs Allocation of blame to builders,designers,officials,ect
4 1month to 1year   Long Term repairs,Action for higher standards  
5 1year to 10 years     Diminishing interest
6 10yrs to next EQ     Reluctance to meet costs of seismic provisions,ect.,lncreasing non-compliance with regulations
7 The next EQ Major EQ Repeat stage 1-7
survey calculation image
A scene from Ahmedabad (Zone III)-same as your city
A scene from Ahmedabad (Zone III)-same as your city figure
Five moderate earthquakes of around 6.5 magnitude have occurred in India since 1988; this leaves the country with no choice but to develop strong initiatives in earthquake disaster preparedness, mitigation and management.”
It is better to be 5 years early than a minute too late figure